Key words: graphic art in journals, art déco, Estonian art, calligraphy, Higher Art School Pallas, State School of Applied Arts, design graphics
The period of 1930-1940 marked the first surge of interest in graphic arts in Estonian journalism. The importance of artists who had received education in homeland increased and the following schools of specific creative image emerged - the school of Tallinn artists, who had mostly been educated at the State School of Applied Art, determined the face of magazines published in Tallinn (e.g. Muusikaleht, Huvitav urnaal, Kirilind, Lood Elust, Maaomavalitsus, Teater, Välis-Eesti Almanak, Sõdur, Käsitööleht, Laste Rõõm, Kaitse Kodu!) and the Tartu school of graphic artists, who had been educated at the Higher Art School Pallas, designed the face of magazines and journals published in Tartu (e.g. Olion, Tänapäev, Varamu, Teater Vanemuine, Kevadik). Art déco style became the common feature of these two schools of art.
The curricula of the School of Applied Arts followed the example of curricula at the Stieglitz School of Applied Arts in St. Petersburg, which was oriented to systematic teaching in calligraphy and decorative art. The school had established good contacts with art institutions in Germany that were considered the most prestigious ones in Europe at the time. National ornamentation was abundantly used. In the 1930s, the Tallinn School laid a solid foundation for the development of Estonian graphic design by ensuring the continuity of education in this field. The work of the Tallinn school is characterised by art decoésque stilisation, moderate use of the element of nationalism and strong composition, also clear and legible script. The indisputable authority for this generation on both decorative art and calligraphy was Günther Reindorff (1889-1975), who devised the systematic methods in teaching calligraphy in Estonia. The most important representatives of the Tallinn school in the graphic art in journalism were Johann Naha (1902-1982), Paul Luhtein (born in 1909), Hugo Lepik (1905-2001), Werner Birkenfeldt (1903-1942), Eduard Salu (1906-1967), Ferdinand Liiv (1912-1948), Voldemar Tomassov (1906-1961), Axel Rossmann (1899-1974), Richard Pallas (1908-1951), Romulus Tiitus (1906-1982), Ferdinand Kask (1900-1941), Roman Haavamägi (1891-1964), Paul Liivak (1900-1942), Eugen Vaino (1909-1969) and Adamson-Eric (1902-1968).
The Tartu school introduced many interesting and original artists; the national propaganda in these works was less evident and the artists had more creative freedom, although the quality of calligraphy was often unprofessional owing to the lack of systematic teaching. Nikolai Triik (1884-1940) and Ado Vabbe (1901-1944), two teachers of graphic art at the Pallas, had a major influence on the Tartu school. The former worked as graphic artist at journals, and his students Ernst Kollom (1908-1974), Arkadio Laigo (1901-1944) and Richard Sagrits (1910-1968) realised their potential in the field as well. Of the students of Ado Vabbe, graphic art in journals was fostered by Elmar Kits (1913-1975) and Hando Mugasto (1907-1937), the latter of whom was remarkably proficient at calligraphy in the Tartu school. Eduard Wiiralt (1898-1954), the great example of artists at the Art School Pallas, also belonged to the Tartu school.
In addition to educated graphic artists, there were several talented autodidacts active in the area.
Key words: democracy, Marimekko, fashion philosophy, youth apparel, clothing design, clothing style, Finnish classics, social equality, Tasaraita
The article discusses the history of Marimekko, which has become a classic clothes company in Finland, and the phenomenon of the striped T-shirt marketed under the Tasaraita brand. Initially Marimekko stood for elitist designer clothes, later youth apparel and, with the Tasaraita, eventually became the people's fashion. The principles of Marimekko design are representative of their period, i.e. the timeless and simple product design philosophy of the 1950s' multifunctionalism. Festive and casual clothes were no longer designed as separate products as the same items could fulfil different functions. The aim was to provide clothing for the entire nation, though Marimekko's products did not become people's clothing at the time, as the customers of the company were mainly educated and wealthy townspeople. Annika Rimala became the head designer of Marimekko in the period between the 1950s and 1960s, and developed the brand of Tasaraita in 1968. Tasaraita was a completely unique product, since the company had not produced jersey clothes before. Rimala's aim was to design a multifunctional jersey shirt that could be worn by anyone - from babies to old people, by men or women - the design concept clearly entailed the Maoist ideology of equality. Former consumers did not associate Tasaraita with Marimekko, since its sales remained rather modest. A year later Tasaraita was relaunched, but the ideological emphasis was dropped, and the sales of the product proved more successful. From the aspect of the clothing concept, this too was representative of the shaping of Marimekko's wholesome environment.
The apex of the idea of equality was the unisex clothing adopted at the
beginning of the 1970s. The typical example of unisex fashion was an outfit of jeans and a
T-shirt. For people, the changes in the standard of living and lifestyle meant transforming from a maker of clothes to a consumer. For Marimekko the changes stood for people's growing opportunities and willingness to choose Marimekko's clothes, and on the other hand, Tasaraita was in accordance with the renewed clothing practices and ideals. While before new items were designed for each season, the basic products, such as those of the Tasaraita brand, came to be on sale all the time, with only the colour scheme altering from one season to another. This popularisation of the basic products enabled the emergence of a line of classical clothing.
The success of the company in the 1970s, brought about by the success of Tasaraita product line, may be explained by Marimekko's clothing ideology being in accord with the general clothing ideology at the time.
The responses of interviewed informants clearly reveal that Tasaraita was by no means a "clothing item for the entire nation" as it has been advertised. Tasaraita's position as a political statement is also controversial. While the general opinion of older informants was that left radicalism and Marimekko were totally incompatible, the younger informants associated Tasaraita with the spirit of the 1960s and 1970s, and only one respondent clearly linked Marimekko and especially Tasaraita with political ideology.
Like jeans, Tasaraita has changed from the modern and even rebellious item of clothing to a widely worn item of casual clothing. Its increasing popularity, which started in the late 1960s, also attests to the topicality of the style associated with Tasaraita.
The article Marimekon Tasaraita pukeutumisilmiöna by Arja Turunen, written originally in Finnish, was published in 2004 in the e-journal of the Department of History and Ethnology of the Jyväskylä University, J@rgonia, no. 3 (available online at http://virtuaaliyliopisto.jyu.fi/jargon/jargonia/marimekko).
Key words: Peru, Incas, empire, early totalitarian state, Mexico, Aztecs, confederation, military democracy
During the period under consideration (1438-1532) the Inca state in Peru was politically a highly centralised empire with a strong central government. Its social structure was that of an early class society with some communal traits; government's intervention in social life was prevalent, village communities were put in the service of the government, horizontal mobility was regulated and vertical mobility was all but nonexistent. It represented a so-called early totalitarian state.
The Aztec state in Mexico during the period under consideration (1427-1519) was a confederation with weak central authority where the core of the confederation used conquered territories as a sort of economic backcountry. Their social organisation represented an early class society with strong communal traits, little interference from the government in the daily life of the community, few opportunities for horizontal mobility, but vertical mobility was quite possible. As such it was a state that had retained many features of a military democracy.
Key words: biography, oral narrative history, social norms, Soviet period
The article observes the degree to which narrators of life stories interpret the course of their life as an individual choice and as a degree of inevitability resulting from the socio-historical context. Folkloristic approaches of the survival of the tradition as the intertwinement of predetermination (folklore awareness) and individual experience, and the approaches of the construction of "autobiographical self" based on the sciences of psychology in biographical research serve as the theoretical basis of the article. The material derives from three biographies sent to the Estonian Life Histories Association in the course of the collection competition of life histories conducted in 2000-2001 on the topic My life and the life of my family in Estonian SSR and the Republic of Estonia. The campaign resulted in over 300 life histories, currently held at the Archives of Cultural History of the Estonian Literary Museum (fund 350).
The main source of the article is a life history which is compared with two other stories from the angle of problem presentation. The first basis of comparison is the temporal context. The historical background of the stories of the informants, born in the early 1950s in rural communities in Estonia, has been shaped by the periods of stability under the Soviet regime: during 1950-1960 and during 1970-1980. The first period is described partly through hardships endured during the post-war period, and partly through the economic difficulties at the time collective farms were established. The second period is characterised as more stable, but was still marked with problems with shortage of goods. On the axis of individual course of life, the first period is associated with childhood and the role of family in the informants' lives, whereas the second period is associated with school, acquiring an occupation and the course of personal life. The second period also entails the formation of attitudes towards the Soviet theme.
The analysed life histories are presented in the context of events of the 1990s, the period of radical change in the political system of Estonia: how the narrators view the Soviet period now, at the time of independence, and how they perceive their opportunities in the new situation and which aspects do they see themselves as having been deprived of.
The second basis for comparison is the self-images of narrators in the extreme situations during the stable period of the Soviet Estonia (prison/army violence). The concordance between individual abilities and behavioural preferences point to the role of cultural predetermination in specific decisions of the individual.
The analysis of the narratives reflects the dynamics of predetermination and choices: historical-political framework as a predetermination, adaptation to it as a choice; origin as a predetermination, the interpretation of the life experience of one's family members as a choice; a violent situation as a predetermination, defiance with either physical force or analysis of experience is an individual choice, but also as a predetermination owing to personal qualities and abilities. The central analyses of personal histories diversify period analyses: the Soviet period in this case is not rendered meaningful only within the framework of the period (1940-1991) and political ideas. The issue of cultural continuity transgressing the limits of the period illustrate the life during and after the Soviet period. In the context of this article, the cultural continuity was expressed through the participation of family.
Key words: home farms, pheasants, pheasant breeding, game bird breeding, hunting, media text, forest-keeping
The article provides an overview of the history of pheasant breeding in Estonia. A more detailed account is given on the foundation, activity and closing down of the Siniküla Pheasant Farm, which was active as a home farm of the Tartu Wood Plant and was the largest of such farms in Estonia at all times. The article is based on personal recollections, information about pheasants published in newspapers and in the Internet, interviews with former workers of the pheasant farm, game hunters and other people involved or knowledgeable in pheasant-breeding. Pheasants were formerly bred at estates, for hunting purposes. The Siniküla farm was founded during the establishment of home farms which started in 1985. Two years later there were 4,700 birds on the farm. Changes in the board of the Ministry of Forestry and the incorporation of the Tartu Wood Factory with the wood processing industry Tarmeko brought along a rapid liquidation of the farm. In Estonia, pheasant farms have been founded also later, some being active even today. The study is mostly based on written reminiscences which have enabled to show that the marginal and exotic, yet attractive branch of bird breeding provides memories lasting over generations and still draws the attention of contemporary readers and the media.
Key words: joke, folklore, folkloristics, narrative research, folk tale, paradigmatic change, corpus of lore, text, contemporary folklore
I will discuss the situation of narrative and folk narrative research in the context of Germany and German-speaking cultural space against the background of the entire field of folkloristic until the paradigmatic change in the 1970s. I will analyse the gnoseological discourse accompanying folklore research. By focusing on the text and contextual analysis I will propose seven criteria that enable to interpret the two tendencies in contemporary folk narrative research. On the one hand I do support the need to look at contemporary narrative genres, whereas on the other hand there is certainly a danger of the traditional canon of narrative research being abandoned.
Translated from the original article "The text is the thing!" Zurück zum Kanon? Which was published in German in Schweizerisches Archiv für Volkskunde vol. 97 (2001), pp. 5-11.
On May 7, 2006, Rutt Hinrikus, reputed literary theorist, critic and scholar at
the Estonian Cultural History Archives turned 60. In addition to being one of the
leading literary theorists, Rutt Hinrikus has had a leading role in organising the collection
of life histories in Estonia and heading the Estonian Life Stories Association.
The First All-Russian Folklorists' Congress was organised by the State Republican Centre of Russian Folklore (Gosudarstvennyi respublikanskij centr russkogo fol'klora) on February 1-6, 2006, by which two volumes of article collections Pervyi Vserossijskij kongress fol'kloristov. Sbornik dokladov I (2005) and II (2006) were published.
Among the congress participants there were experts in the field from academic institutions, research centres, higher education institutions, and, characteristically of academic conferences in Russia, supervisors of creative groups and ensembles, teachers and implementers of mass education methods. In addition to plenary sessions, 17 sessions were held. The sessions were held mostly before noon, with round table discussions held in the afternoons and documentaries screened late in the evenings, etc. Some sessions lasted throughout the day.
Of the 700 people who expressed their wish to participate at the congress only 500 were listed as participants - these were people from all over Russia, from Karelia and St. Petersburg to Kamchatka. The number of foreign delegates was limited to a dozen people, including Aado Lintrop, Anu Korb, Mare Kõiva and Andres Kuperjanov representing Estonia.
Anu Korb provides an overview of the congress, with a focus on the topics
discussed during the session on contemporary fieldwork and the session entitled
Issues in Archiving and Systematisation of Folklore Material. New
On February 27-28, 2006, the third interdisciplinary seminar in the series People and Pets was held at the Estonian Literary Museum in Tartu. The central theme of the seminar this time was Animal Myths, and it was organised by the Department of Folkloristics at the Estonian Literary Museum and the non-government organisation Estonian Folklore Institute. Subtopics of the seminar entailed the issues of keeping animals in town and large farms, and the health of animals. Animal myths include this aspect of lore that various specialists in veterinary issues have to deal with on a daily basis: this influences their work ethics and professional goals, and has an effect on the views of common people. The aim of the seminar was to search for the common grounds which may allow cooperation and exchange of ideas between different disciplines, including, for example, veterinary medicine and folkloristics. The presentations held discussed the relationships of people and animals in the period of antiquities (Külli Valk), herding and house spirits (Enn Ernits, Mall Hiiemäe), reports of animal injuries in the trial documents of parish courts (Maarja Karisto), acts of heroism by animals as reflected in the media (Loone Ots), the role of hearing dogs as helpers of the deaf (Liina Paales), also the views on keeping pets during the Soviet period (Ell Vahtramäe, Mare Kõiva, Ülo Siimets), the return of old animal legends (Eda Kalmre), animals in religious worldview, and pets in general. Further information about the seminar is available at www.folklore.ee/rl/fo/konve/loomaiii. Veterinary doctor Thea Kristal entertained the seminar participants with her stories and songs, and Jane Orro from the veterinary company Dimela headed long evening discussions about the practical needs of animals and the cost of keeping pets. The participants could also enjoy the photo display A Piece of the Diversity of Nature by Sven ZaFek. Overview by Ave Tupits.
Through the entire year of 2006, the Finnish Literary Society (SKS) is celebrating its 175th anniversary. Celebrating events are organised both in Finland and abroad. The society, Finland and Finnish culture is introduced in the form of outing seminars in various towns in Finland; for the purpose of cooperation the plan includes carrying out four seminars abroad.
The first of such seminars was held on April 20-21 in Tartu in cooperation with the Estonian Literary Museum and the University of Tartu. The main theme of the seminar held in English was Language and Identity. Overview of the topics discussed at the seminar by Sirje Olesk.
On April 25, people interested in Finno-Ugric languages and culture, students of
Paul Ariste and admirers of his work gathered to the main hall of the Estonian
Literary Museum in Tartu. Marje Joalaid gave an overview of Paul Ariste's life work and
the Veps language, his fieldwork activities and a brief summary of the diverse
material, collected from the Vepsian area, most of which was unfortunately destroyed
during the 1965 fire of the main building of the University of Tartu. In his presentation
about the past of the Komi people, their language, everyday life and traditions,
Nikolay Kuznetsov introduced the ethnographic representation of the life, work,
households, clothes, food, and children's games of Komi or Zyryan hunters and fishermen on
the basis of materials collected by Paul Ariste and very recently published as the
second volume of the anthology of Komi folklore, the presentation of which was held at
the end of the lecture day. Overview of the event by Liisa Vesik.
On May 10-11, 2006 the third conference in the Medica series was held in the main hall of the Literary Museum in Tartu. The main theme of the presentations held at the interdisciplinary conference of medical anthropology was the transforming of 'unfamiliar into `familiar'. Presentations were held by philosopher Argo Moor, historian Kurmo Konsa, folklorists Mare Kõiva and Marju Kõivupuu, tai chi instructor and MA student of health care economy Lauri Niilisk, physical anthropologists Jaan and Tiiu Kasmel, pharmacist Stella Kuhi, psychologist Anti Liiv and degree students Raivo Kalle, Renata Sõukand, Ave Tupits, Kaarina Rein, Kelli Arusaar and Ken Kalling. Conference abstracts are available at Medica home page www.folklore.ee/rl/fo/konve/medica/. Overview of the conference by Renata Sõukand.
From May 29 to June 1, 2006, the 24th Conference of the International Society
of Contemporary Legend Research (ISCLR) was held in Copenhagen. On this
academic forum featuring a number of leading scholars in the field, Estonia was represented
by Mare Kõiva, Eda Kalmre and Mare Kalda from the Estonian Literary Museum.
Mare Kõiva analysed the use of verbal means of expression by small pet owners while
communicating with their pets. Mare Kalda discussed the incorporation of traditional
legends in the information about the treasures in Geocaching. Eda Kalmre demonstrated
how a small nation sometimes identifies itself in narratives with world-famous figures,
be that Napoleon, the President of the United States, Princess Diana, or the
legendary F1 pilot Ayrton Senna - all have allegedly Estonian roots. Overview of the
conference by Mare Kalda.
Art is an illustrated literary journal which has been published in the Komi Republic since 1997, and publishes also articles on history and culturology. The journal is published quarterly and its print run is 1,200. The journal's editor in chief has been and is Galina Butyreva, a poet and cultural figure, who has also been the vice president of the Komi Republic.
On its 192 pages, the journal publishes fiction, reviews, interviews, analytical reviews, scholarly articles in the field of history, ethnography, etc. and studies into social and sociological problems, and issues of intangible and political culture in the Komi and the Russian language. The main criteria of the journal are the fact that the journal is published bilingually and that the range of topics discussed is broad. The journal is intended not only for scholars and cultural workers but also for the general public, everyone interested in the situation of literature, history, culture, and social and political processes in the Komi Republic.
Introduction of the journal
Art (www.komi.com/artlad/index.asp) by
Introduction of the book Mifologicheskie rasskazy juga Tjumenskoi oblasti: Bylichki i byvalchshny: Uchebnoe nosobie [Mythological Narratives of the Southern Tiumen Oblast: Memorates and Fabulates: Educational material] (Moscow: Prometei 2004, 215 pp.) by Mare Kõiva.