Overview about research in medical folkloristics during the
recent 50 years. The author emphasises that the focal point of
research must always be the cultural analysis of the process of the
formation and the complexity of various concepts and images. Translated
into Estonian by Renata Sõukand. Source: Rørbye, Birgitte 1992.
From folk medicine to medical folkloristics. - Reimund Kvideland
et al. (ed.). Folklore Processed. In honour of Lauri Honko on his
60th Birthday 6th March 1992. Studia Fennica Folkloristica 1. NIF
Publications 24. Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, pp. 190-199.
The role of place in medical encounters that involve language
is examined using theoretical arguments backed by empirical
studies. Links between language and place, health and place and
especially language and health are discussed. The language-health link
is elaborated in terms of explanatory models; how language is used
in medical encounters; and power, dominance and resistance
relationships. It is also shown how considerations of place enhance
knowledge about this link. The paper closes with a set of research
questions that focus on the role of place. Translated into Estonian by
Kristin Haugas and Anne Kaaber. Source: Gesler, Wilbert M. 1999. Words
in wards: Language, health and place. - Health &
Place 5, pp. 13-25.
One of the important milestones and changes in human history
is the appearance and dominance of the city as a place of habitation and as the administrative and economic heart of society. Until
the beginning of the 18th century in Europe, there were only
preindustrial cities and there are still arguably preinduistrial
cities left today. In this article only cities dating before the Industrial
Revolution will be discussed. Translated into Estonian by
Kadri Selge and Kairika Kärsna. Source: Storey, Rebecca 1992.
Preindustrial urban lifestyle and health. - Huss-Ashmore, Rebecca
& Schall, Joan & Hediger, Mary (ed.). Health and Lifestyle
Change. MASCA Research papers in Science and Archaeology 9.
Philadelphia: MASCA, University Museum of Archaeology and
Anthropology, pp. 33-42.
It is believed that music has been used to treat people since the Palaeolithic Period. In the time when illnesses were attributed to supernatural phenomena, the instruments of making sound where used to create connection with magic powers. When people learned to give rational explanations to illnesses, they began to consider the effect of music as balancing emotional life and bodily processes. In ancient Greece and Rome, practising doctors gave suggestions on music therapy, but it was considered an alternative treatment. Relying on the effect modes and rhythms has on emotions, music was considered especially suitable for dispersing passionate desires. Different music was suggested for different illnesses. Through ages it has been recommended to engage in music activities supporting ethos in order to stay healthy.
The discovery of the methods for recording sound at the end
of the 19th century expanded the range of therapeutic use of
music. Music was regularly used in medicine in order to control
moods, decrease anxiety, and promote relaxation. Music was
introduced into dental procedures, midwifery and operating theatres.
In contemporary medicine there are three major ways of
applying music: supportive to medical treatment (e.g. music listening
during a procedure to diminish anxiety and to promote
relaxation); equivalent to treatment (e.g. singing in the case of
respiratory problems); primary treatment (e.g. listening to music to achieve
pain relief). In parallel with application of music in medicine,
music therapy developed into an independent field, which according
to Kenneth Bruscia, is a systematic process of intervention
wherein the therapist helps the client to achieve health, using
musical experiences and the relationships that develop through them
as dynamic forces of change.
The article treats in depth the uniqueness of discourse and demonstrates why concepts from medical discourse do not enter legends in unchanged form. Since they are unfit for presentation as a separate structured plot, they have no function in folk narratives. However, this does not rule out the fact that people knew them and put to use when encountered with disease.
Their format - ready-made single concepts distributed
mainly by the literary tradition - made them more apt to be represented
in folk belief accounts. The latter genre, due to the era's and
folklorists' romanticism, provohed little interest and was thus often
ignored. The factors described in the article that influence
tradition-shaping, shed light on the relations of oral-spontaneous and
scholarly-organised traditions from various angles.
While trying to locate the material on folk cures for warts in both the Irish as well as in the English language, Country Mayo proved to be a good choice from a number of counties in the Schools' Manuscripts in the Archive of the Department of Irish Folklore. As Mayo is one of the biggest bilingual counties, there was a large and representative material corpus recorded from there on the topic.
It appears from the archive texts that warts were seen as something tedious and widespread but definitely curable, for which a wide variety of remedies were used, from snail to water, from potatoes to charms etc. The texts imply that the remedies worked if one really believed in the remedy. There is a certain pattern one must follow, certain actions to be performed and there is always the suggestion reflecting from behind the words to really believe in what one is doing.
It surprised me how versatile one particular area in folk
medicine can be. Although the current topic was limited to a certain
county and narrowed down to only one ailment and its remedies and
most of the material coincided, there were still little things that
kept coming up and widening the range of the remedies.
The article views the different etiological systems presented by various ethno-medicine researchers. In addition to Ilmari Manninen (who included Estonian material), classifications suggested by Mascie-Taylor, Honko, Morley and Ackerknecht are viewed.
There is as yet no systematised overview of Estonian
folk medicine. A new system of categorization needs to be created
Another reprint of articles published by the theologian
Villem Uuspuu in late 1930s in the journal Usuteadusline Ajakiri.
The series of articles concern Estonian 17th century witch processes. This
time in focus: records of the Pärnu County Court archive.
The treatise is an example of scholarly folk medicine
discussions from nearly 50 years ago and provides an overview of the
conclusive discussion at the I Nordic Folk Medicine Symposium, in 1961
held in Stockholm on the initiative of the Nordiska
museet. Translated into Estonian by Renata Sõukand. Source: Carl-Herman
Tillhagen 1962-1963. Material and Research Methods within
Folk-medicine. ARV: Nordic Yearbook of
Folklore 18/19, pp. 352-362.
The grand old man of Estonian folkloristics, PhD (1955) Ülo Tedre celebrated on February 12, 2003, his 75th jubilee. Ülo Tedre is a truly multifaceted folklorist. His main research topics concern runo song (though mainly the newer, rhymed folk song) and customs.
Ü. Tedre contributed to the compilation of the to date
most comprehensive runo song anthology of over 7000 texts -
Eesti rahvalaulud I-IV [Estonian Folk Songs I_IV] (1969-1972)
and songs from Jõhvi and Iisaku parishes in the
Vana kannel [Old Zither] series. His main interest in peasant customs has
centred on weddings and mumming, illustrated by the publications
"Eesti pulmad. Lühiülevaade muistsetest kosja- ja
pulmakommetest" [Estonian Weddings. A Short Overview of Ancient Wooing
and Wedding Customs] (1973) and "Pulmasõnastik" [Wedding
Dictionary] (journal Mäetagused, in 1996-1999). In recent years,
he has been part of the Nordic countries co-project
Mumming and Masking.
The doctoral dissertation by Aivar Jürgenson
Siberi eestlaste territoriaalsus ja
identiteet [Territoriality and Identity of
Siberian Estonians] (Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli humanitaarteaduste
dissertatsioonid 7, Tallinn 2002, 308 pp.) lays emphasis on the
territorial aspects of identity. The research concerns issues central
to territory: what kind of relationship do Siberian Estonians
have with their homeland Siberia and the once-homeland Estonia,
what do they consider their fatherland, how have different influences
shaped the Siberian Estonian culture, etc. Light is thrown also on
why thousands of Estonians stay in Siberia and have not come (back)
Tatjana Minnijahmetova [Tatiana Minniakhmetova] defended
her PhD on Kaama-taguste udmurtide traditsioonilised
kombed: struktuur, semantika, folkloor (Òðàäèöèîííûå îáðÿäû çàêàìñêèõ
óäìóðòîâ: Ñòðóêòóðà. Ñåìàíòèêà. Ôîëüêëîð
) [Traditional Customs among Udmurts Living Across the Kama River: Structure,
Semantics, Folklore] in 2003 at Tartu University.
Review of the documentaries
Päikeselapsed [Children of the Sun] (authors Liis Ruussaar and Kristel Kaljund) and
Juri Vella maailm [The World of Juri Vella] (author Liivi Niglas) presents the
new films on Udmurts and Forest Nenets peoples, research on
them and their place in the globalising world in general. The
review concerns issues not directly depicted in the films.
The book Eesti mees ja tema sugu: XIX sajandi
lõppriimilises rahvalaulus [The Estonian Man and His Gender: In the 19th
Century End-Rhymed Folk Song] by Ülo Tedre analyses the 19th
century end-rhymed folk song. In addition to a text-centred analysis,
the author presents overview of the historical economic and
juridicial situation in Estonian and Livonia - a necessary background
to properly understand newer songs.
An overview of the translation into Estonian of
medical-pedagogical handbook A Guide to Child
Health (Kindersprechstunde) of the
antroposophic practitioners Wolfgang Goebel and Manuela Glöckler.
An overview of the journal of organization of students and
young scholars of ethnology and folklore NEFA (Nordisk
Etnologisk Folkloristisk Arbetsgrupp [Nordic Workgroup of Ethnology
and Folkloristics] Nord Nytt No 86 Döden är också
liv [Death is life too].